|José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda|
A photo of José Rizal, National hero of the Philippines.
|Date of birth:||June 19, 1861.|
|Place of birth:||Calamba, Laguna, Philippines|
|Date of death:||December 30, 1896 (aged 35)|
|Place of death:||Bagumbayan (now Rizal Park), Manila, Philippines|
|Major organizations:||La Solidaridad, La Liga Filipina|
|Major monuments:||Rizal Park|
Transcriber’s Note: Dr. José Rizal wrote this last poem before he was
executed on December 30,1896 in Bagumbayan. Although the poem was
originally untitled, we have opted to use the more popular reference
for this poem in this edition.
Nota del transcriptor: El Dr. José Rizal escribió este último poema
antes de ser ejecutado el 30 de diciembre de 1896 en Bagumbayan.
Aunque el poema carecía de título en el original, hemos optado por
usar, en esta edición, el título con el que generalmente se le hace
“Mi Ultimo Adios” (Spanish for ” My Last Farewell“ ) is a poem written by Philippine national hero Jose Rizal on the eve of his execution on December 30
1896. Although the poem was untitled, this title served as an artifice
useful as a quick reference. This poem was one of the last notes he
wrote before his execution. Another that he had written before his
death was found in his shoe but because the text could not be read it
remains a mystery.
Rizal did not inscribe a title to his poem. Mariano Ponce, Rizal’s friend and fellow reformist, titled it Mi Último Pensamiento in the copies he distributed, but this did not catch on. Here is a copy of news story taken from The Inquirer dated December 30, 2002:
On the afternoon of Dec. 29, 1896, a day before his execution,
Dr. Jose Rizal was visited by his mother, Teodora Alonzo, sisters
Lucia, Josefa, Trinidad, Maria and Narcisa, and two nephews. When they
took their leave, Rizal told Trinidad in English that there was
something in the small alcohol stove (cocinilla), not alcohol lamp
(lamparilla). The stove was given to Narcisa by the guard when the
party was about to board their carriage in the courtyard. At home, the
Rizal ladies recovered from the stove a folded paper. On it was written
an unsigned, untitled and undated poem of 14 five-line stanzas. The
Rizals reproduced copies of the poem and sent them to Rizal’s friends
in the country and abroad. In 1897, Mariano Ponce in Hong Kong had the
poem printed with the title “Mi Ultimo Pensamiento.” Fr. Mariano
Dacanay, who received a copy of the poem while a prisoner in
Bilibid(jail), published it in the first issue of La Independencia on
Sept. 25, 1898 with the title “Ultimo Adios.” N.B. The stove was
not delivered until after the execution. Rizal needed it to light the
room and to be able to write the poem and his other parting words.
Thus did Rizal’s untitled, undated and unsigned last poem became
popularly known as “Ultimo Adios,” or “Mi Ultimo Adios.” The poem has
become internationally renowned.
There are at least 35 English translations known and published (in
print) of this poem as of December 2005. The most popular is that of
American Charles Derbyshire (dated 1911) and is inscribed on bronze.
Also on bronze at the Rizal Park in Manila but less known is the
translation by Filipino National Artist, novelist and journalist Nick
Joaquin (1944). The latest translation is in Czech made by a Czech
diplomat and addressed at the session of the senate.
IT COULD THE MOST TRANSLATED PATRIOTIC SWAN SONG IN THE WORLD.
Aside from the 35English versions and interpretations into 46Filipino
languages, this poem has been translated into at least 38 other
languages: Indonesian, Bengali, Bulgarian, Burmese, Chinese, Czech,
Danish, Dutch, Fijian, French, German, Greek, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Hindi,
Hungarian, Igbo (Nigeria), Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Korean, Latin,
Maori, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Sanskrit, Sinhalese
(Sri Lanka), Somali, Tahitian, Thai, Tongan, Turkish, Urdu (Pakistan),
Vietnamese, Wolof (Senegal), and Yoruba (Nigeria).
Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net.
Special thanks to Filipinas Heritage Library for providing
the material for this project. Handog ng Proyektong
Gutenberg ng Pilipinas para sa pagpapahalaga ng panitikang
LOVE IS MY SHEPERD
He leads me down.
To where the troubled water
Sprung up to the ground.
I found the answer
Now it seems so clear
When I saw your face
I can’t help but trace
That love is my sheperd
When you are there.
I’ve lived with the darkness
I’ve been thru the mill,
I craved the attention
Then choked on the thrill
I found the answer
I saw it in your eyes
So sweet the surprise,
Now I can see
That love is my sheperd
Now ,you’re here with me
Today new horizons
Are filled with a joy
Towards them I travel
With hope to employ
And I’ve been seduced
By failure and pride
But love is the answer inside.
My failure looks faithful
My prayers have been heard
And love is the reason
I carry the word.
The word is excitement
The feeling is great
I carry that weight
Now I’m set free
Love is my sheperd
Now you’re here with me
Love is my sheperd
Now you’re here with me
written, arrange and performed by:
wet wet wet
A Natural Geographical Monument
formation in Bohol, Philippines.According to
the latest accurate survey done there are 1,776 hills spread over an area of more than 50 square
kilometres (20 sq mi). They are covered in green grass thatturns brown during the dry season, hence the nameChocolate Hills. The Chocolate Hills are a famous tourist attraction of Bohol. It is featured in the provincial flag and seal to symbolize the abundance of natural attraction in the province It is in the Philippine Tourism Authority’s list of tourist destinations in the Philippines it has been declared the country’s 3rd National Geological Monument and proposed for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage
The Chocolate Hills are Bohol‘s famous attraction Photographer Salvador Andre notes:
Most people who first see pictures of this landscape can hardly
believe that these hills are not a man-made artifact. However, this
idea is quickly abandoned, as the effort would surely surpass the
construction of the pyramids in Egypt.
There is no natural formation like them in the world.From a distance, they look like half a ball grown out of the ground.The molehill-shaped and almost uniformly sized hills dot the landscape with green and brown.
The Chocolate Hills is a rolling terrain of haycock
hills – mounds of general shape which are conical and almost
symmetrical.Estimated to be at least 1,268 individual mounds to about 1,776, these
cone-shaped or dome-shaped hills are actually made of grass-covered
limestone. The domes vary in sizes from 30 to 50 metres (98 to
160 ft) high with the largest being 120 metres (390 ft)
in height. They are scattered throughout the towns of Carmen, Batuan and Sagbayan in Bohol.Bohol’s “main attraction”, these unique mound-shaped hills are
scattered by the thousands on the island’s central plain, concentrated
near the town of Carmen.
During the dry season, the precipitation
is inadequate such that the grass-covered hills dry up and turn
chocolate brown. This transforms the area into seemingly endless rows
of “chocolate kisses“. The branded confection is the inspiration behind the name, Chocolate Hills.
The panoramic view of the Chocolate Hills
The Chocolate Hills and the area around it have relatively flat to rolling topography with elevation ranges from 100 to 500 metres (330 to 1,600 ft) above sea level Higher karstic hills dominate the landscape inland then turning almost uniformly and naturally molded in Carmen.
The vegetation of the Chocolate Hills is dominated by hardy grass species such as Imperata cylindrica and Saccharum spontaneum. Several Compositae
and ferns also grow on them. In between the hills, the flat lands are
cultivated to rice and other cash crops. However, the natural
vegetation on the Chocolate Hills is now highly threatened by quarrying activities.
The Chocolate Hills in Carmen, Bohol
the formation of the hills. These include simple limestone weathering, sub-oceanic volcanism, the uplift
of the seafloor and a more recent theory which maintains that as an
ancient active volcano self-destructed, it spewed huge blocks of stone
which were then covered with limestone and later thrust forth from the
The Chocolate Hill Geographic Monument
have long debated about the formation of the hills, resulting in
various ways the origin of the Chocolate Hills are stated or explained.
The one written on the bronze plaque at the viewing deck in Carmen,
Bohol states that they are eroded formations of a type of marine
limestone that sits on top of hardened clay. The plaque reads:
The unique land form known as the Chocolate Hills of Bohol was
formed ages ago by the uplift of coral deposits and the action of rain
water and erosion.
Another statement says:
The grassy hills were once coral reefs that erupted from the sea in a massive geologic shift. Wind and water put on the finishing touches over hundreds of thousands of years.
Still another way the origin is stated is that they were formed centuries ago by tidal movement and by the uplift of coral deposits and the action of rain water and erosion.nother theory is that they were ancient coral limestone reefs shaped
by many thousands of years erosion by both water and wind.
Geologists think that the specific shape of the hills is caused by the
influence of the weather over millions of years. The break down of the
upper layers of the limestone formations, followed by the erosion
processes, resulted in these cone-shaped remnants. is likely that they were once limestone deposits beneath the sea,
uplifted by the movement of plates and then smoothed by wind and
The Chocolate Hills are conical karst hills similar to those seen in the limestone regions of Slovenia and Croatia, except that the Chocolate Hills have no caves.According to the karst theory, “sea level changes and uplift combined
with terrestrial erosion and air exposure of biogenic reef regions have
given rise to hummocky landscapes that are often impregnated with
sinkholes and caves.” The Chocolate Hills are considered among the
striking examples of this karst topography. The Bungle Bungles in the Purnululu National Park in Western Australia feature similar sedimentary formations.
explain the formation of the Chocolate Hills. The first tells the story
of two feuding giants who hurled rocks, boulders and sand at each
other. The fighting lasted for days, and exhausted the two giants. In
their exhaustion, they forgot about their feud and became friends, but
when they left they forgot to clean up the mess they had made during
their battle, hence the Chocolate Hills.
A more romantic legend tells of a giant named Arogo who was
extremely powerful and youthful. Arogo fell in love with Aloya, who was
a simple mortal. Aloya’s death caused Arogo much pain and misery, and
in his sorrow he could not stop crying. When his tears dried, the
Chocolate Hills were formed
The third legend tells of a town being plagued by a giant carabao,
who ate all of their crops. Finally having had enough, the townsfolk
took all of their spoiled food and placed it in such a way that the
carabao would not miss it. Sure enough, the carabao ate it, but his
stomach couldn’t handle the spoiled food, so he defecated, leaving
behind him a mound of feces, until he had emptied his stomach of the
food. The feces then dried, forming the Chocolate Hills.
The last legend is about a Gluttonous giant named Dano that eats
everything in his path. One day he came to a plain. He saw a beautiful
young woman named Eng. To win her affection, he needed to lose weight.
So he excreted everything he ate. In the end, his fecal matter covered
the land and he won eng’s affection.
View of Chocolate Hills from Sagbayan Peak
Chocolate Hills sunset in Carmen Bohol
Choclate HillS coverd with fogs
A visit to the Chocolate Hills Natural Monument in Bohol, Philippines is like a visit to a land where Hershey Chocolate Kisses
are created for giants, except for the fact that at this natural mossy
wonder of the world you will need to bring your own chocolate if you
are looking for a tangible treat. However, for those looking for an
experience of a lifetime the natural beauty of Chocolate Hills will not
disappoint with its approximate 1500 mounds that are covered in grassy
• Over 1,270 similarly cone-shaped hills creating a sea of hills over 20 square miles (50 sq km)
• Located in Bohol, Philippines
• Heights typically range from 98 to 160 feet (30 to 50 m) with the highest reaching 390 feet (120 m)
National Geological Monument
The Chocolate Hills was declared Philippines’s 3rd National Geological Monument (together with Taal Volcano, and Hundred Islands National Park) and recently included in the nomination for the New 7 Wonders of Nature, and also proposed for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The name Chocolate Hills actually was spawned by the famous Hershey
treat given the fact that during the dry season the grass on the cone
mounds browns and resembles rows of chocolate ripe for the picking.
This coincidentally is also one of the best times of the year to visit
the Chocolate Hills if you want to stay dry during your visit since
there is a constant influx of precipitation during the rainy season.
Ref: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia