Mi Ultimo Adios .. by Dr.Jose Rizal
|José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda|
A photo of José Rizal, National hero of the Philippines.
|Date of birth:||June 19, 1861.|
|Place of birth:||Calamba, Laguna, Philippines|
|Date of death:||December 30, 1896 (aged 35)|
|Place of death:||Bagumbayan (now Rizal Park), Manila, Philippines|
|Major organizations:||La Solidaridad, La Liga Filipina|
|Major monuments:||Rizal Park|
Transcriber’s Note: Dr. José Rizal wrote this last poem before he was
executed on December 30,1896 in Bagumbayan. Although the poem was
originally untitled, we have opted to use the more popular reference
for this poem in this edition.
Nota del transcriptor: El Dr. José Rizal escribió este último poema
antes de ser ejecutado el 30 de diciembre de 1896 en Bagumbayan.
Aunque el poema carecía de título en el original, hemos optado por
usar, en esta edición, el título con el que generalmente se le hace
“Mi Ultimo Adios” (Spanish for ” My Last Farewell“ ) is a poem written by Philippine national hero Jose Rizal on the eve of his execution on December 30
1896. Although the poem was untitled, this title served as an artifice
useful as a quick reference. This poem was one of the last notes he
wrote before his execution. Another that he had written before his
death was found in his shoe but because the text could not be read it
remains a mystery.
Rizal did not inscribe a title to his poem. Mariano Ponce, Rizal’s friend and fellow reformist, titled it Mi Último Pensamiento in the copies he distributed, but this did not catch on. Here is a copy of news story taken from The Inquirer dated December 30, 2002:
On the afternoon of Dec. 29, 1896, a day before his execution,
Dr. Jose Rizal was visited by his mother, Teodora Alonzo, sisters
Lucia, Josefa, Trinidad, Maria and Narcisa, and two nephews. When they
took their leave, Rizal told Trinidad in English that there was
something in the small alcohol stove (cocinilla), not alcohol lamp
(lamparilla). The stove was given to Narcisa by the guard when the
party was about to board their carriage in the courtyard. At home, the
Rizal ladies recovered from the stove a folded paper. On it was written
an unsigned, untitled and undated poem of 14 five-line stanzas. The
Rizals reproduced copies of the poem and sent them to Rizal’s friends
in the country and abroad. In 1897, Mariano Ponce in Hong Kong had the
poem printed with the title “Mi Ultimo Pensamiento.” Fr. Mariano
Dacanay, who received a copy of the poem while a prisoner in
Bilibid(jail), published it in the first issue of La Independencia on
Sept. 25, 1898 with the title “Ultimo Adios.” N.B. The stove was
not delivered until after the execution. Rizal needed it to light the
room and to be able to write the poem and his other parting words.
Thus did Rizal’s untitled, undated and unsigned last poem became
popularly known as “Ultimo Adios,” or “Mi Ultimo Adios.” The poem has
become internationally renowned.
There are at least 35 English translations known and published (in
print) of this poem as of December 2005. The most popular is that of
American Charles Derbyshire (dated 1911) and is inscribed on bronze.
Also on bronze at the Rizal Park in Manila but less known is the
translation by Filipino National Artist, novelist and journalist Nick
Joaquin (1944). The latest translation is in Czech made by a Czech
diplomat and addressed at the session of the senate.
IT COULD THE MOST TRANSLATED PATRIOTIC SWAN SONG IN THE WORLD.
Aside from the 35English versions and interpretations into 46Filipino
languages, this poem has been translated into at least 38 other
languages: Indonesian, Bengali, Bulgarian, Burmese, Chinese, Czech,
Danish, Dutch, Fijian, French, German, Greek, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Hindi,
Hungarian, Igbo (Nigeria), Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Korean, Latin,
Maori, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Sanskrit, Sinhalese
(Sri Lanka), Somali, Tahitian, Thai, Tongan, Turkish, Urdu (Pakistan),
Vietnamese, Wolof (Senegal), and Yoruba (Nigeria).
Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net.
Special thanks to Filipinas Heritage Library for providing
the material for this project. Handog ng Proyektong
Gutenberg ng Pilipinas para sa pagpapahalaga ng panitikang