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Archive for April, 2010

Aftermath Of Natural Catastrophe

Earthquakes, Typhoons, Volcanic Eruptions…
These had caused so much disasters in so many countries in the world.
Can we as simple citizens of these planet stop these disasters? I suppose
no one, on this earth can do anything to stop any of these natural  catastrophe.
But we have so much to learn how to deal with any of these calamities.
We can learn how to prepare and protect ourselves in times of any disasters
I myself have experienced these horrifying earthquakes twice. It’s
horrifying but in comparison to these ones that occurred recently, they’re far
more, worst.
Important and useful to anyone in need.


The Song “TELL ME WHY? A tribute to Children.. sung by Declan Galbraith
made me think deeply about these natural calamities.There are many questions to
be answered by us adults about their PLEA “TELL ME WHY?”

Val, as you’ve mentioned in Learning from Haiti Earthquake and Iceland Volcanic
eruption , there are more countries we can learn from earthquake calamities and
volcanic eruptions, typhoons and floods… Like Philippines

Mt. Pinatubo Erupts 1991

The volcano’s ultra-Plinian eruption in June 1991

Breaking News Mayon Volcano eruption Philippines
02 January 2010 – Mayon Volcan eruption Dec.2009/ Jan. 2010 by Geoff Mackley
Mayon Volcano and Mount Pinatubo
Mayon Photo Country: Philippines
Subregion Name: Luzon (Philippines)
Volcano Number: 0703-03=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 2010
Summit Elevation: 2462 m 8,077 feet
Latitude: 13.257°N 13°15’24″N
Longitude: 123.685°E 123°41’6″E
Beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2462 m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines’ most active volcano. The structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from strombolian to basaltic plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon’s most violent eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1200 people and devastated several towns.

Pinatubo Photo Country: Philippines
Subregion Name: Luzon (Philippines)
Volcano Number: 0703-083
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1993
Summit Elevation: 1486 m 4,875 feet
Latitude: 15.13°N 15°8’0″N
Longitude: 120.35°E 120°21’0″E
Prior to 1991 Pinatubo volcano was a relatively unknown, heavily forested lava dome complex located 100 km NW of Manila with no records of historical eruptions. The 1991 eruption, one of the world’s largest of the 20th century, ejected massive amounts of tephra and produced voluminous pyroclastic flows, forming a small, 2.5-km-wide summit caldera whose floor is now covered by a lake. Caldera formation lowered the height of the summit from 1745 to 1486 m. Although the eruption caused hundreds of fatalities and major damage with severe social and economic impact, successful monitoring efforts greatly reduced the number of fatalities. Widespread lahars that redistributed products of the 1991 eruption have continued to cause severe disruption. At least six major eruptive periods, interrupted by lengthy quiescent periods, have occurred from modern Pinatubo volcano during the past 35,000 years. Most of these have produced major pyroclastic flows and lahars that were even more extensive than in 1991.  


Earthquake Aftermath……


Baguio City …the summer capital of the country..We needed all to wake up!!!!!!
We needed to learn from these tragedies ..many  factors of these devastations are or were  the roles we played.


The Day Philippines Stood Still (Aftermath of Typhoon Ondoy)…KETSANA
September 2009
28 September 2009 — Two days after typhoon Ondoy (Ketsana) tore through the Philippinecapital Manila and nearby provinces, the death toll now stands at 240, as of Wednesday noon.Almost 500,000 more people need immediate help in evacuation centers — food, clothing, potable water, medicine, and the gargantuan task to rebuild their lives again and keep the spirit of “bayanihan” alive.

— 30 September 2009 — Rescuers pulled more bodies from swollen rivers and debris-strewn streets Tuesday to bring the death toll from massive flooding to 240, while two new storms brewing in the Pacific threatened to complicate relief efforts.The homes of nearly 1.9 million people in the capital and surrounding areas were inundated byflooding unleashed when Tropical Storm Ondoy (international codename: Ketsana) tore throughthe region over the weekend, the National Disaster Coordinating Council said Tuesday.Nearly 380,000 people have sought shelter in schools, churches and other evacuation centers.Overwhelmed officials have called for international help , warning they may not have sufficient resourcesto withstand two new storms forecasters have spotted east of the island nation in the Pacific Ocean.One could hit the northern Philippines later this week and the other early next week,although meteorologists say that could change. Ondoy, which scythed across the northernPhilippines on Saturday, dumped more than a month’s worth of rain in just 12 hours, fueling theworst flooding to hit the country in more than 40 years.Troops, police and volunteers have already rescued more than 12,359 people, but unconfirmed reports of more deaths abound, Defense Secretary Gilbert Teodoro said.
Source: http://www.sunstar.com.ph/network/typ…
Global Disaster Hotspots: Who Gets Pummeled
By Michael Schirber, LiveScience Staff Writer

The human impact of a natural catastrophe depends greatly on where it happens, disaster officials have long known. In a soon-to-be-published report, scientists have mapped out some of the worst places to live when Nature shows the ugly side of her face.
The maps and analysis were prepared by the Earth Institute at Columbia University for the World Bank, which expects to publish them sometime this winter. The report is designed as a guide for how international investments should be made and a tool for battling calamity before it strikes.
The researchers compiled statistics from the last two decades on natural disasters in three categories: geophysical (earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides), hydro (floods and hurricanes) and drought.

!Based on these factors, they mapped out hot spots of risk.

Hotspots based on …
… mortality risks

… total economic loss risks

… economic loss risks as a proportion of GDP per unit area

Maps courtesy the Earth Institute at Columbia University

The notable feature of the maps is that there are small countries that get pummeled,” the Earth Institute’s Arthur Lerner-Lam told LiveScience. Places like Honduras, Guatemala, and the Philippines are some of the riskiest.
Part of this has to do with geography. Central America, for example, is an area of high tectonic activity, which results in many volcanoes and earthquakes. It is also in the path of tropical storms.
“If a geologist were to put a country somewhere, this might be one of the last places,” Lerner-Lam said of Central America.
But there are many reasons why people choose to live in dangerous areas. “Lots of people farm on volcanic soil because it’s fertile,” Lerner-Lam said in a telephone interview prior to the Asian disaster. And coastlines were, and continue to be, important centers for trade.
Beyond geography, however, developing countries have a harder time preparing for and recovering from disasters, as was evidenced by the lack of warning for December’s tsunami in Asia and the agonizing days people waited for relief crews.
“Poorer people are hit disproportionately by hazards,” Lerner-Lam said.
Part of the problem is that poorer nations get stuck in the “recovery trap.” They spend so much of their resources rebuilding after the last disaster that they are not ready for the next one. This is not true in well-off countries like Japan and Italy, which comparatively suffer a lot of economic damage, but whose economies “can absorb the brunt of these disasters,” Lerner-Lam said.
The risks in the new report were calculated based on the number of deaths, the cost, and the cost as a percentage of the economic output, or Gross Domestic Product (GDP), of that location. The maps indicate hotspots, which are areas in the top 30 percent of risk for a given indicator. The goal of the new maps is to help investors make smart choices for sustainable development. A good example is earthquake-prone Istanbul, Turkey, where the effort is to construct buildings that are less vulnerable.
Tsunami Special Report

By spending a little more money to make something earthquake-resistant, Lerner-Lam said, “we reduce the loss of life and get a better return on the building because it doesn’t fall down.”
A little preventative medicine could impact the movement of money around the globe. World Bank data indicates that emergency loans and reallocation of existing loans for disaster reconstruction from 1980 to 2003 totaled $14.4 billion, with $12 billion going to disaster hotspot countries.
“This tells us that we need to work to reduce the vulnerability of these developing countries to natural disasters as part of any poverty reduction strategy,” said the Earth Institute’s Robert Chen.  

My heart, my prayers and deep sympathy for all my countrymen who were caught
in these devastating CATASTROPHE.

May 31,2010

Central America floods, mudslides kill scores
More than 110,000 in Guatemala flee as first storm of season lashes region
Image: A woman looks at the destruction caused by Tropical Storm Agatha 

Orlando Sierra / AFP – Getty Images
A woman looks on at the destruction caused by Tropical Storm Agatha in the neighborhood of El Chile, in Tegicigalpa, Honduras on May 31.2010
Image: Picture taken on May 31, 2010 of the Bai
Storm, volcano pummel Guatemala
In addition to Tropical Storm Agatha taking at least 63 lives, the Pacaya volcano started spewing lava and rocks Thursday afternoon, killing at least one person.


Tell Me Why

Ray thanks for sharing me this graphic

Tell Me Why

In my dream, children sing
A song of love for every boy and girl
The sky is blue and fields are green
And laughter is the language of the world
Then i wake and all i see
Is a world full of people in need

Tell me why(why) does it have to be like this?
Tell me why (why) is there something i have missed?
Tell me why (why) cos i don’t understand
When so many need somebody
We don’t give a helping hand
Tell me why?

Everyday i ask myself
What will i have to do to be a man?
Do i have to stand and fight
To prove to everybody who i am?
Is that what my life is for
To waste in a world full of war?

Tell me why(why) does it have to be like this?
Tell me why (why) is there something i have missed?
Tell me why (why) cos i don’t understand
When so many need somebody
We don’t give a helping hand
Tell me why?

(children)tell me why?(declan)tell me why?
(children)tell me why?(declan)tell me why?
(together) just tell me why, why, why?

Tell me why(why) does it have to be like this?
Tell me why (why) is there something i have missed?
Tell me why (why) cos i don’t understand
When so many need somebody
We don’t give a helping hand
Tell me why?

Tell me why (why,why,does the tiger run)
Tell me why(why why do we shoot the gun)
Tell me why (why,why do we never learn)
Can someone tell us why we let the forest burn?
(why,why do we say we care)
Tell me why(why,why do we stand and stare)
Tell me why(why,why do the dolphins cry)
Can some one tell us why we let the ocean die?
(why,why if we’re all the same)
Tell me why(why,why do we pass the blame)
Tell me why (why,why does it never end)
Can some one tell us why we cannot just be friends?
Tell Me Why” is taken from “Declan” album, Declan Galbraith.
“We Adults are the Models of the Children”

The song and the lyrics, which is a moving reality, the photos,actually happend and the very emotional graphic shared to me by Ray, and the boy who sang the song with so much feelings deep in his heart, struck my heart so much and for the love of all children in our world, this blog is my tribute to all of them.  I wish for a better World to live in, for us all, for our children and for our children’s children.Why can’t we just be Friends?
“Tell Me Why”





Since I love Blue and Black

Sherrilynn knows it Best


Are the colors that I love Best

For Brad and the rest

I love them so with my Best

I love Blue, I love Black

With  you and the rest

I love Blue@Black with

Brad is myBest


Sherrilynn and  Blue Black

Earth Day

” Earth Day – April 22, 2013 ”

77110_440732639352187_2070898875_n (2)

Earth Day, celebrated April 22, is a day designed to inspire awareness and appreciation for
the Earth’s environment.But we must not celebrate Earth day on this date alone but at all
times, thinking all the dangers of Global Warming.in which we are one of the factors of it.

Let us all be united to learn and  protect our  Environment for our Mother Earth. Not only today but at all times

About Earth Day:
Earth Day, celebrated April 22, is a day designed to inspire awareness and appreciation for the Earth’s environment.

It is held annually during both spring in the northern hemisphere and autumn in the southern hemisphere.

It was founded by U.S. Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in in 1970 and is celebrated in many

countries every year.The United Nations celebrates an Earth Day each year on the March equinox, a

tradition which was founded by peace activist John McConnell in 1969.

History of Earth Day

Earth Day — April 22 — each year marks the anniversary of the birth of the modern environmental movement in 1970.

Among other things, 1970 in the United States brought with it the Kent State shootings, the advent of fiber optics, “Bridge Over Troubled Water,” Apollo 13, the Beatles’ last album, the death of Jimi Hendrix, the birth of Mariah Carey, and the meltdown of fuel rods in the Savannah River nuclear plant near Aiken, South Carolina — an incident not acknowledged for 18 years.

History of Earth Day

Participant in Earth Day, 1970.
Photo: EPA History Office

It was into such a world that the very first Earth Day was born.

Earth Day founder Gaylord Nelson, then a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, proposed the first nationwide environmental protest “to shake up the political establishment and force this issue onto the national agenda. ” “It was a gamble,” he recalls, “but it worked.”

At the time, Americans were slurping leaded gas through massive V8 sedans. Industry belched out smoke and sludge with little fear of legal consequences or bad press. Air pollution was commonly accepted as the smell of prosperity. Environment was a word that appeared more often in spelling bees than on the evening news.

Earth Day 1970 turned that all around.

On April 22, 20 million Americans took to the streets, parks, and auditoriums to demonstrate for a healthy, sustainable environment. Denis Hayes, the national coordinator, and his youthful staff organized massive coast-to-coast rallies. Thousands of colleges and universities organized protests against the deterioration of the environment. Groups that had been fighting against oil spills, polluting factories and power plants, raw sewage, toxic dumps, pesticides, freeways, the loss of wilderness, and the extinction of wildlife suddenly realized they shared common values.

Denis Hayes – Honorary Chair, Earth Day Network

History of Earth DayEarth Day 1970 achieved a rare political alignment, enlisting support from Republicans and Democrats, rich and poor, city slickers and farmers, tycoons and labor leaders. The first Earth Day led to the creation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the passage of the Clean Air, Clean Water, and Endangered Species acts.

Sen. Nelson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom — the highest honor given to civilians in the United States — for his role as Earth Day founder.

As 1990 approached, a group of environmental leaders asked Denis Hayes to organize another big campaign. This time, Earth Day went global, mobilizing 200 million people in 141 countries and lifting the status of environmental issues on to the world stage. Earth Day 1990 gave a huge boost to recycling efforts worldwide and helped pave the way for the 1992 United Nations Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro.

As the millennium approached, Hayes agreed to spearhead another campaign, this time focused on global warming and a push for clean energy. Earth Day 2000 combined the big-picture feistiness of the first Earth Day with the international grassroots activism of Earth Day 1990. For 2000, Earth Day had the Internet to help link activists around the world. By the time April 22 rolled around, 5,000 environmental groups around the world were on board, reaching out to hundreds of millions of people in a record 184 countries. Events varied: A talking drum chain traveled from village to village in Gabon, Africa, for example, while hundreds of thousands of people gathered on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., USA.

EPA Administrator William K. Reilly with former Senator Gaylord Nelson, Earth Day 1990. Photo: EPA History Office

EPA Administrator William K. Reilly with former Senator Gaylord Nelson, Earth Day 1990. Photo: EPA History Office

Earth Day 2000 sent the message loud and clear that citizens the world ’round wanted quick and decisive action on clean energy.

Now, the fight for a clean environment continues. We invite you to be a part of this history and a part of Earth Day. Discover energy you didn’t even know you had. Feel it rumble through the grass roots under your feet and the technology at your fingertips. Channel it into building a clean, healthy, diverse world for generations to come.

Valerie, I thank you so much for all these Useful Links:

Learning to Do Historical Research: A Primer for Environmental Historians and Others

40th Anniversary of Earth Day, April 22, 2010

History of Earth Day

Earth Day and EPA History

Introduction: the Earth Day story and Gaylord Nelson




http://w ww.earthday.net/node/77..THANKS for the Links Valerie



global Warming movie

Fresh Water movie

Link from my previous blog:



The Historic Canterbury Cathedral

The Historic Canterbuy Cathedral … A Journey To The Past

Canterbury Cathedral was built by the people of faith  and it is people of the faith who make it what it is today. People come to Canterbury Cathedral for many different reasons, to see its  magnificent architecture; because it is one of the glories of England, of Europe, indeed of the world. But whatever the reason for the visit,They are coming to a place which is a symbol of spiritual God in his creative energy redeeming love and power. The Cathedral was first built when St. Augustine brought Christianity to these shores .At the site of martyrdom of Thomas Becket and in the Chapel of Twentieth Century. Martyrs, men and women are confronted with the cost of Christian faith.In the silence of the Crypt, there space for men and women to make their own response to God and listen to “His still small voice.” Today, Canterbury,is not only
the Mother of Church of England, it is also the
Mother Church of eighty million Anglicans throughout the world

Canterbury Cathredral  year 597…. until today 2010

Through the centuries

595               St Augustine arrived in Kent and soon establihef the first Cathedra.l

1070-1077   Catherdal rebuilt by ArchbishopLafranc

1170            Thomas Becket murdered in the Cathedral

1175-1184   Quire rebuilt Trinity and CoroneChapels added all as see today.

1220            Becket’sbody placedin new shrinein Ttrinity Chapel.

1377-1405  Old Lanfranc Churh demolised and rebuiltas presenzNave,

Clioster  vaultingi nserted.

1450          Pupiltum Screen constructed.

1498         Bell Harry Tower completed the cathedral.

1538         Becket’s shrine destryed by Henry V111

1540         Monastary dissolve by royal command

1541        New foundation of Deanand Chapter establised.

1560-1704 Repair and refurbishingalter Purotan damage

1663       Quire Lecterm

1954      Library rebuilt and repairing war damage

1986       Altar of the Sword’s Point (Martyrdom) restored

1988      Compass Rose placed in the Nave

Canterbury Tales …very famous in English literature.

Taking things one day at a time.

Understand climate changes & other phenomena

I wanted to share you, these very interesting and important informations
about climate changes and other phenomena,and I hope my dear friends,
have a spare time to read these, if you haven’t came across one time or the
other about our climate changes,it’s effects, what
El Niños or El Niñas are
all about and the consquences we are to face with it all.

Understand Climatic Changes with NOAA
..( National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration )
Thanks my dear Valerie Hadoux for the links.

In every walk of life, young and old alike, we shouldn’t stop learning!!!

The El Niño Story

NOAA logo El Niño Theme Page TAO logo
What is an El Niño?
El Niño is characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific, as opposed to La Niña, which characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific. El Niño is an oscillation of the ocean-atmosphere system in the tropical Pacific having important consequences for weather around the globe.
El Niño conditions
Among these consequences are increased rainfall across the southern tier of the US and in Peru, which has caused destructive flooding, and drought in the West Pacific, sometimes associated with devastating brush fires in Australia. Observations of conditions in the tropical Pacific are considered essential for the prediction of short term (a few months to 1 year) climate variations.

Read more on:
Recognizing an El Niño
El Niño animations
Recent El Niños
Selected references
Related sites:
What is La Niña?
Children of the Tropics: El Niño and La Niña.
Today’s El Niño and La Niña information Updated daily!
Sites in Spanish and Portuguese language

To provide necessary data, NOAA operates a network of buoys which measure temperature, currents and winds in the equatorial band. These buoys daily transmit data which are available to researchers and forecasters around the world in real time. In normal, non-El Niño conditions (top panel of schematic diagram), the trade winds blow towards the west across the tropical Pac:ific. These winds pile up warm surface water in the west Pacific, so that the sea surface is about 1/2 meter higher at Indonesia than at Ecuador.

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(a) (b)
(a) Schematic diagram of normal El Niño conditions in the Pacific Ocean, and (b) temperature on the Equator at 110W

The sea surface temperature is about 8 degrees C higher in the west, with cool temperatures off South America, due to an upwelling of cold water from deeper levels. This cold water is nutrient-rich, supporting high levels of primary productivity, diverse marine ecosystems, and major fisheries. Rainfall is found in rising air over the warmest water, and the east Pacific is relatively dry. The observations at 110 W (left diagram of 110 W conditions) show that the cool water (below about 17 degrees C, the black band in these plots) is within 50m of the surface.
During El Niño (bottom panel of the schematic diagram), the trade winds relax in the central and western Pacific leading to a depression of the thermocline in the eastern Pacific, and an elevation of the thermocline in the west. The observations at 110W show, for example, that during 1982-1983, the 17-degree isotherm dropped to about 150m depth. This reduced the efficiency of upwelling to cool the suface and cut off the supply of nutrient rich thermocline water to the euphotic zone. The result was a rise in sea surface temperature and a drastic decline in primary productivity, the latter of which adversely affected higher trophic levels of the food chain, including commercial fisheries in this region. The weakening of easterly tradewinds during El Niño is evident in this figure as well. Rainfall follows the warm water eastward, with associated flooding in Peru and drought in Indonesia and Australia. The eastward displacement of the atmospheric heat source overlaying the warmest water results in large changes in the global atmospheric circulation, which in turn force changes in weather in regions far removed from the tropical Pacific.
Recognizing El Niño
El Niño can be seen in Sea Surface Temperature in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean

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Normal Conditions –
December 1993
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El Niño (warm) Conditions –
December 1997
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La Niña (cold) Conditions –
December 1998
Also see the entire Pacific Ocean

El Niño can be seen in measurements of the sea surface temperature, such as those shown above, which were made from the TAO Array of moored buoys. In December 1993, the sea surface temperatures and the winds were near normal, with warm water in the Western Pacfic Ocean (in red on the top panel of December 1993 plot), and cool water, called the “cold tongue” in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (in green on the top panel of the December 1993 plot). The winds in the Western Pacific are very weak (see the arrows pointing in the direction the wind is blowing towards), and the winds in the Eastern Pacific are blowing towards the west (towards Indonesia). The bottom panel of the December 1993 plot shows anomalies, the way the sea surface temperature and wind differs from a normal December. In this plot, the anomalies are very small (yellow/green), indicating a normal December. December 1997 was near the peak of a strong El Niño year. In December 1997, the warm water (red in the top panel of the December 1997 plot) has spread from the western Pacific Ocean towards the east (in the direction of South America), the “cold tongue” (green color in the top panel of the December 1997 plot) has weakened, and the winds in the western Pacific, usually weak, are blowing strongly towards the east, pushing the warm water eastward. The anomalies show clearly that the water in the center of Pacific Ocean is much warmer (red) than in a normal December.
December 1998 was a strong La Niña (cold) event. The cold tongue (blue) is cooler than usual by about 3° Centigrade. The cold La Niña events sometimes (but not always) follow El Niño events.
Animation of El Niño
Animation of physical processes allow scientists to better understand El Niño
If you have an MPEG animation viewer, and sufficient memory, you can view an animation of El Niño which shows the changes in monthly sea surface temperature in the tropical Pacific Ocean. The animation is about 1 Megabyte in size. As you view this animation, you will see the warm water spreading from the western Pacific to the eastern Pacific during 1997. The bottom panel in the animation, labeled anomalies, shows how much the sea surface temperature for each month is different from the long term average for that month. The red color in the anomalies plot indicates that the temperature of the water is much warmer than is normal for that month. Blue color indicates that the water is much cooler than is normal for that month
Recent El Niños
Several recent El Niños can be seen in Pacific Sea Surface Temperature representations

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Mean and anomalies of sea surface temperature from 1986 to the present, showing El Niños in 1986-1987, 1991-1992, 1993, 1994 and 1997

In the left hand panel, you see the sea surface temperature at the Equator in the Pacific Ocean (Indonesia is towards the left, South America is towards the right). Time is increasing downwards from 1986 at the top of the plot, to the present, at the bottom of the plot. The first thing to note is the blue “scallops” on the right of the plot, in the eastern Pacific. These indicate the cool water typically observed in the Eastern Pacific (called the “cold tongue”). Cold tongue temperatures vary seasonally, being warmest in the northern hemisphere springtime and coolest in the northern hemisphere fall. The red color on the left is the warm pool of water typically observed in the western Pacific Ocean. El Niño is an exaggeration of the usual seasonal cycle. During the El Niño in 1986-1987, you can see the warm water (red) penetrating eastward in the Spring of 1987. There is another El Niño in 1991-1992, and you can see the warm water penetrating towards the east in the northern hemisphere spring of 1992. The El Niño in 1997-1998 is a very strong El Niño. El Niño years are easier to see in the anomalies on the right hand panel. The anomalies show how much the sea surface temperature is different from the usual value for each month. Water temperatures significantly warmer than the norm are shown in red, and water temperatures cooler than the norm are shown in blue.

Information on the names El Niño and La Niña
El Niño was originally recognized by fisherman off the coast of South America as the appearance of unusually warm water in the Pacific ocean, occurring near the beginning of the year. El Niño means The Little Boy or Christ child in Spanish. This name was used for the tendency of the phenomenon to arrive around Christmas.
La Niña means The Little Girl. La Niña is sometimes called El Viejo, anti-El Niño, or simply “a cold event” or “a cold episode”. El Niño is often called “a warm event”.
There has been a confusing range of uses for the terms El Niño, La Niña and ENSO by both the scientific community and the general public, which is clarified in this web page on definitions of the terms ENSO, Southern Oscillation Index, El Niño and La Niña. Also interesting is the Web page: Where did the name El Niño come from?

In the right-hand plot of sea surface temperature anomalies, it is very easy to see El Niños, with water warmer than usual (red) in the eastern Pacific, during in 1986-1987, 1991-1992, 1993, 1994 and 1997-1998. Notice the very cool water (blue), in the Eastern Pacific, in 1988-1989. This is a strong La Niña, which occurs after some (but not all) El Niño years. 1995-1996 was a weaker La Niña year. It is unusual for El Niños to occur in such rapid succession, as has been the case during 1990-1994.
Selected references
Selected papers on El Niño and La Niña
National Academy of Sciences El Niño web site
Philander, S.G.H., 1990: El Niño, La Niña and the Southern Oscillation. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 289 pp.
Hayes, S.P., L.J. Mangum, J. Picaut, A. Sumi, and K. Takeuchi, 1991: TOGA-TAO: A moored array for real-time measurements in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 72, 339-347. (abstract available)
McPhaden, M.J., 1993: TOGA-TAO and the 1991-93 El Niño-Southern Oscillation Event. Oceanography, 6, 36-44. (entire paper available)
El Niño references: TAO refereed journal articles and other TAO papers. Reports to the Nation- El Niño and Climate Prediction El Niño Theme Page – Central access to widely distributed El Niño data and information.

nationalgeographic.com logo

El Niño/La Niña

Nature’s Vicious Cycle


El Niño/La Niña

By Curt Suplee Part 1 | 2 | 3

It rose out of the tropical Pacific in late 1997, bearing more energy than a million Hiroshima bombs. By the time it had run its course eight months later, the giant El Niño of 1997-98 had deranged weather patterns around the world, killed an estimated 2,100 people, and caused at least 33 billion [U.S.] dollars in property damage.

Updated Images
Weekly Pacific Ocean Temperatures

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Isaias Ipanaqué Silva knew none of that. All he and the other peasant farmers in the Peruvian hamlet of Chato Chico could see was that after weeks of incessant rain the adjacent Piura River had not stopped rising. The rainfall itself was no surprise. Every three to seven years, for as long as anyone could remember, the same rainfall had arrived after a pool of hot seawater the size of Canada appeared off the west coast of the Americas. The ocean would heat up right around Christmastime, so fishermen called the phenomenon El Niño, for the Christ Child. Then that titanic storm source would pour vast amounts of precipitation onto Peru’s normally arid northwestern coast.
But few had ever seen this much rain—five or six inches a day in some places.
Finally, on February 15, 1998, the river broke its banks. The sodden ground could hold no more, and water swept into the riverside homes of Chato Chico. The swirling torrent was first knee-deep and soon chest high. “Suddenly we were surrounded from all directions,” Ipanaqué Silva says. “It took all the little animals. Then my house just fell down completely.
Hundreds of families splashed frantically through the muddy flood to save what they could. In most cases, says another villager, Rosa Jovera Charo, “we just grabbed clothes for the children.” Everything else—chickens and goats, pots and pans, religious icons and personal treasures—washed away. Compared with other places in Peru and around the world, the residents of Chato Chico were fairly lucky. Some were evacuated on barges, a few in helicopters, to a barren but dry refugee camp in the desert. Nearly all survived.
That was not the case some 60 miles [100 kilometers] to the south, in a 3-acre [1.2-hectare] pocket of one-room houses called Motse outside the city of Chiclayo. “We thought that the water couldn’t come here,” says Flora Ramirez, “but we lost practically everything.” Ramirez’s neighborhood was overrun in a matter of minutes. “They strung ropes from one house to another to rescue people,” recalls Manuel Guevara Sanchez. “Some spent three days on the roof. Those who knew how to swim brought them food.” When the flood finally receded, they could begin to count the dead: ten out of a village of just 150.
The runoff from the floods poured into the coastal Sechura Desert. Where there had been nothing but arid hardscrabble waste for 15 years, suddenly—amazingly—lay the second largest lake in Peru: 90 miles [145 kilometers] long, 20 miles [30 kilometers] wide, and ten feet [three meters] deep, with occasional parched domes of sand and clay poking up eerily from the surface.
In other areas the water simply pooled. The mosquitoes that thrived in these places caused rampant malaria—some 30,000 cases in the Piura region alone, three times the average for its 1.5 million residents.

Learn how wind and water drive El Niño and La Niña.


Peru was where it all began, but El Niño’s abnormal effects on the main components of climate—sunshine, temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, humidity, precipitation, cloud formation, and ocean currents—changed weather patterns across the equatorial Pacific and in turn around the globe. Indonesia and surrounding regions suffered months of drought. Forest fires burned furiously in Sumatra, Borneo, and Malaysia, forcing drivers to use their headlights at noon. The haze traveled thousands of miles to the west into the ordinarily sparkling air of the Maldive Islands, limiting visibility to half a mile [0.8 kilometer] at times.
Temperatures reached 108°F [42°C] in Mongolia; Kenya’s rainfall was 40 inches [100 centimeters] above normal; central Europe suffered record flooding that killed 55 in Poland and 60 in the Czech Republic; and Madagascar was battered with monsoons and cyclones. In the U.S. mudslides and flash floods flattened communities from California to Mississippi, storms pounded the Gulf Coast, and tornadoes ripped Florida.
By the time the debris settled and the collective misery was tallied, the devastation had in some respects exceeded even that of the El Niño of 1982-83, which killed 2,000 worldwide and caused about 13 billion dollars in damage.
And that’s not the end of it. It is not uncommon for an El Niño winter to be followed by a La Niña one—where climate patterns and worldwide effects are, for the most part, the opposite of those produced by El Niño. Where there was flooding there is drought, where winter weather was abnormally mild, it turns abnormally harsh. La Niñas have followed El Niños three times in the past 15 years—after the 1982-83 event and after those of 1986-87 and 1995. Signs of another La Niña began to show up by June 1998.

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El Niño/La Niña & PDO – Learn More About it


WMO El Niño/La Niña Update

El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) – La Niña, diagnostic discussion

Latest El Niño/La Niña Jason Data

NOAA’s El Niño Page

What is an El Niño?

NOAA’s La Niña Page

What is La Niña?

The Effects of La Niña

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Greenhouse Effect

The greenhouse
effect is a natural warming process of the earth. When the sun’s energy
reaches the earth some of it is reflected back to space and the rest
is absorbed. The absorbed energy warms the earth’s surface which then
emits heat energy back toward space as longwave radiation. This outgoing
longwave radiation is partially trapped by greenhouse gases such as
carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour which then radiate the energy
in all directions, warming the earth’s surface and atmosphere. Without
these greenhouse gases the earth’s average surface temperature
would be about 35 ° Celsius cooler.

Greenhouse Effect
activities such as deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels have
increased the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Scientists
are concerned that higher greenhouse gas concentrations will lead to an
“enhanced” greenhouse effect which may lead to global climate change.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
is an international group of scientists which advises policy
makers on the latest science of greenhouse climate change. In late 1995
the IPCC concluded that “the balance of evidence suggests a discernible
human influence on global climate.”

Research institutes
such as the Bureau of
Meteorology Research Centre
Division of Atmospheric Research
use complex computer model simulations
of the climate system to investigate potential greenhouse climate changes.

Happy Easter

Happy Easter my dear Friends